General polychaetes

Beesley, P.L., Ross, G.J.B. & Glasby, C.J. (eds) 2000. Polychaetes & Allies: the southern synthesis. Fauna of Australia. Vol. 4A. Polychaeta, Myzostomida, Pogonophora, Echiura, Sipuncula. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, xii + 465 pp.

Day, J.H. & Hutchings, P.A., 1979. An annotated check-list of Australian and New Zealand Polychaeta, Archiannelida and Myzostomida. Records of the Australian Museum 32: 80-161.

Fauchald, K. 1977. The polychaete worms. Definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Series 28: 1–188.

Wilson, R., Hutchings, P.A. & Glasby, C.J. 2003. Polychaetes: An interactive Identification Guide. CSIRO Publishers. (CD)


Invasive species

Carlton, J.T. 1987. Patterns of transoceanic marine biological invasions in the Pacific Ocean. Bulletin of Marine Science 41: 452-465.

Çinar, M.E. 2012. Alien polychaete species worldwide: current status and their impacts. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 93(5): 1-22.

Holloway, M.G. & Keough, M.J. 2002. An introduced polychaete affects recruitment and larval abundance of sessile invertebrates. Ecological Applications 12: 1803–1823.

Hewitt, C.L., Campbell, M.L., Thresher, R.E., Martin, R.B., Boyd, S., Cohen, B.F., Currie, D.R., Keough, M.J., Lewis, J.A., Lockett, M.M., Mays, N., McArthur, M.A., O’Hara, T.D., Poore, G.C.B., Ross, D.J., Storey, M.J., Watson, J.E. & Wilson, R.S. 2004. Introduced and cryptogenic species in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. Marine Biology 144: 183-202.

Hayes, K. R., Sliwa, C., Migus, S., McEnnulty, F. & Dunstan, P. 2004 National priority pests. CSIRO Marine Research Report.

Boudouresque, C.F., Briand, F. & Nolan, C. (eds). 1994. Introduced species in European coastal waters. European Commission Ecosystems Research Report 8, 111 pp

Carlton, J.T. & Hodder, J. 1995. Biogeography and dispersal of coastal marine organisms: experimental studies on a replica of a 16th-century sailing vessel. Marine Biology 121: 721-730.

Chapman, J.W. & Carlton, J.T. 1991. A test of criteria for introduced species: the global invasion by the isopod Synidotea laevidorsalis (Miers, 1881). Journal of Crustacean Biology 11(3): 386-400.

Poore, G.C.B. 1996. Species differentiation in Synidotea (Isopoda: Idoteidae) and recognition of introduced marine species: A reply to Chapman and Carlton. Journal of Crustacean Biology 16(2): 384-394.

Sliwa, C., Migus, S., McEnnulty, F. & Hayes, K. R. 2009. Marine Bioinvasions in Australia. In: Rilov G. & Crooks, J.A. (eds) Biological Invasions in Marine Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 425-437.

Wilson, R. & McArthur, M. 2008. Pest and Diseases Image Library. Available online:



Andrew, J. & Ward, R.D. 1997. Allozyme variation in the marine fanworm Sabella spallanzanii: Comparison of native European and introduced Australian populations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 152: 131-143.

Capa, M. 2007. Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic relationships of apomorphic sabellids (Sabellidae: Polychaeta) from Australia. Invertebrate Systematics 21: 537-567.

Capa, M. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships within Bispira Kroyer, 1856 and Stylomma Knight-Jones, 1997 (Polychaeta, Sabellidae) and description of new species from Australia. Hydrobiologia 596: 301–327.

Capa, M., Bybee, D. & Bybee, S. 2010. Integrative taxonomy reveals cryptic species within Sabellastarte Krøyer, 1856 (Sabellida: eAnnelida) and establishes the systematics of the genus. Organisms Diversity and Evolution 10: 351–371.

Capa, M., Pons, J., & Hutchings, P. 2013. Cryptic diversity, intraspecific phenetic plasticity and recent geographical translocations in Branchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida). Zoologica Scripta 42(6): 637-655.

Clapin, G. & Evans, D.R. 1995. The status of the introduced marine fanworm Sabella spallanzanii in Western Australia: a preliminary investigation. CSIRO Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests, Hobart, no. 2, 34 pp.

Fitzhugh, K. 1989. A systematic revision of the Sabellidae-Caobangiidae-Sabellongidae complex (Annelida: Polychaeta). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 192: 1–104.

Hutchings, P. & Murray, A. 1984. Taxonomy of polychaetes from the Hawkesbury River and the southern estuaries of New South Wales, Australia. Records of the Australian Museum 3: 1-118.

Knight-Jones, P. & Perkins, T.H. 1998. A revision of Sabella, Bispira, and Stylomma (Polychaeta: Sabellidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 123: 385–467.

Ogburn, D.M., White, I. & McPhee, D.P. 2007. The disappearance of oyster reefs from eastern Australian estuaries - impact of colonial settlement or mudworm invasion? Coastal Management 35: 271-287.

Patti, F.P. & Gambi, M.C. 2001. Phylogeography of the invasive polychaete Sabella spallanzanii (Sabellidae) based on the nucleotide sequence of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of nuclear rDNA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 215: 169 -177.

Tovar-Hernández, M.A., Méndez, N. & Salgado-Barragán, J. 2009. Branchiomma bairdi: a Caribbean hermaphrodite fan worm in the south-eastern Gulf of California (Polychaeta: Sabellidae). Marine Biodiversity Records 2: e43.

Tovar-Hernández, M.A., Méndez, N. & Villalobos-Guerrero, F.T. 2009. Fouling polychaete worms from the southern Gulf of California: Sabellidae and Serpulidae. Systematics and Biodiversity 7: 319-336.



Bastida-Zavala, J.R. & ten Hove, H.A. 2002. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Western Atlantic Region. Beaufortia 52: 103–173.

Bastida-Zavala, J.R. & ten Hove, H.A. 2003. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Eastern Pacific Region and Hawaii. Beaufortia 53: 67–110.

Dew, B. 1959. Serpulidae (Polychaeta) from Australia. Records of the Australian Museum 25: 19–56.

Kupriyanova, E.K., Nishi, E., ten Hove, H.A. & Rzhavsky, A.V. 2001. A review of life history patterns in Serpulimorph polychaetes: ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 39: 1–101.

Pillai, G. 2009. Descriptions of new serpulid polychaetes from the Kimberleys of Australia and discussion of Australian and Indo-West Pacific species of Spirobranchus and superficially similar taxa.  Records of the Australian Museum 61: 93–199.

Read, G.B. & Gordon, D.P. 1991. Adventive occurrence of the fouling serpulid Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Polychaeta) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 25: 269-273.

Straughan, D. 1967. Some Serpulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Heron Island, Queensland. University of Queensland Papers 1: 27–45.

Straughan, D. 1967. Marine Serpulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) of eastern Queensland and New South Wales. Australian Journal of Zoology 15: 201–261.

ten Hove, H.A.  1979. Different causes of mass occurrence in serpulids. In: Larwood, G. & Rosen, B.R. (eds) Biology and systematics of colonial organisms. Systematic Association Special Volume 11, pp. 281–298.

ten Hove, H.A. & Ben-Eliahu, M.N. 2005. On the identity of Hydroides priscus Pillai 1971 - Taxonomic confusion due to ontogeny in some serpulid genera (Annelida: Polychaeta: Serpulidae). Senckenbergiana biologica 85(2): 127-145.

ten Hove, H.A. & Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. 1984. A revision of the genus Crucigera (Polychaeta; Serpulidae), a proposed methodical approach to serpulids, with special reference to variation in Serpula and Hydroides. In: Hutchings, P.A. (ed) Proceedings of the First International Polychaete Conference, Sydney, Australia, July 1983. Linnean Society of New South Wales, Sydney, pp. 143–180.

ten Hove, H.A. & Kupriyanova, E. K. 2009. Taxonomy of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta): the state of affairs. Zootaxa 2036: 1-126.

ten Hove, H.A. & Weerdenburg, J.C.A. 1978. A generic revision of the brackish-water serpulid Ficopomatus Southern 1921 (Polychaeta: Serpulinae), including Mercierella Fauvel 1923, Sphaeropomatus Treadwell 1934, Mercierellopsis Rioja 1945 and Neopomatus Pillai 1960. Biological Bulletin 154: 96–120.

Sun Y., Wong, E., ten Hove H.A, Hutchings P.A., Williamson, J. & Kupriyanova, E.K. 2015. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Serpulidae, Annelida) from Australia. Zootaxa 4009: 1–99.

Sun Y., Wong, E, Tovar-Hernandez, M., Williamson, J. & Kupriyanova, E.K. 2016 Is Hydroides brachyacantha (Serpulidae, Annelida) a widely-distributed species? Invertebrate Systematics 30: 41–59.



Blake, J. A. 1983. Polychaetes of the family Spionidae from South America, Antarctica, and adjacent seas and islands. Biology of the Antarctic Seas XIV. Antarctic Research Series 39: 205-288.

Blake, J. A. 1996. Family Spionidae Grube, 1850. Including a review of the genera and species from California and a revision of the genus Polydora Bosc, 1802. In: Blake, J.A., Hilbig, B. & Scott, P.H. (eds). Taxonomic Atlas of the Benthic Fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and the Western Santa Barbara Channel. Vol. 6 The Annelida. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, California, pp. 81-223.

Blake, J. A. 2006. Spionida. In: Rouse, G. & Pleijel, F. (eds). Reproductive biology and phylogeny of Annelida. Vol. 4. Reproductive biology and phylogeny. Science Publisher, Enfield, NH, pp. 565-638.

Blake, J. A. & Arnofsky, P. L. 1999. Reproduction and larval development of the spioniform Polychaeta with application to systematics and phylogeny. Hydrobiologia 402: 57-106.

Blake, J. A. & Kudenov, J. D. 1978. The Spionidae (Polychaeta) from southeastern Australia and adjacent areas with a revision of the genera. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria 39: 171-280.

Hutchings, P. A. & Turvey, S. P. 1984 The Spionidae of South Australia (Annelida: Polychaeta). Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 108: 1-20.

Lleonart, M., Handlinger, J. & Powell, M. 2003 Spionid mud worm infestation of farmed abalone (Haliotis spp.). Aquaculture 221: 85-96.

Radashevsky, V. I. 2012. Spionidae (Annelida) from shallow waters around the British Islands: an identification guide for the NMBAQC Scheme with an overview of spionid morphology and biology. Zootaxa 3152: 1-35.

Read, G. B. 1975. Systematics and biology of polydorid species (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from Wellington Harbour. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 5: 395-419.

Read, G. 2010. Comparison and history of Polydora websteri and P.haswelli (Polychaeta: Spionidae) as mud-blister worms in New Zealand shellfish. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 44(2): 83-100.

Sato-Okoshi, W. & Abe, H. 2012. Morphological and molecular sequence analysis of the harmful shell boring species of Polydora (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from Japan and Australia. Aquaculture 368-369: 40-47.

Skeel, M. E. 1979. Shell-boring worms (Spionidae: Polychaeta) infecting cultivated bivalve molluscs in Australia. Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society 10: 529-533.

Walker, L. 2011. A  review of the current status of the Polydora-complex (Polychaeta: Spionidae) in Australia and a checklist of recorded species. Zootaxa 2751: 40-62.